You and Your Family
F Educate your children wife and other family member in respect of natural and manmade disasters and other crises. In case of your being unaware, take help of Civil Defence and Home Guard organisation and other NGOs. Develop habit in you and your children to spare 1% of you busy time to think about Individual security and security interests.
F Keep the phone numbers of the local police station, police control rooms, fire stations, and schools, colleges, TV station, All India Radio, ambulance services and Chemists for emergency use.
F Guide children to remain at schools in emergency.
F Prepare an emergency kit of items and essentials in the house including essential documents and valuables.
F Store food and water for survival in case you had a pre-warning.
F Any suspicious incidents observed be reported to police on 103. Callers do not have to give their identity on the phone. Information of immediate use be conveyed to control rooms to help early relief.
F Carry your identity card, residential telephone number or address or personal card with you. Have your blood group and any medical allergies recorded with you.
F Check information in case of disasters and crises from ward, civil Defence/Home Guard, and BMC, TV and All India Radio Control room.
F Learn to fight such emergencies untidily.
F Support authorities and NGOs.
F Identify scooters, cars, vehicles parked in society and identify vehicles which are unknown and parked for long.
F Organize societies and muhalla committees to educate people.
F Do not encourage rumors.
F Do not blame any community for any crises.
F Do not encourage communal hatred in such situations.
Your Place of Work
F Your mode of travel by car, bus, train and taxi be known to your people.
F High rises buildings must check their electric and water supplies and organise periodic mockup drills for fire fighting and escape routes.
F Drills for bomb blast, threats be organised and practiced.
F Air/Helicopter evacuation be examined and organised from selected rooftops of high rises.
F Fire fighting equipment be kept serviceable and periodic check is effected.
F Office societies be organised and prepared to coordinate such emergencies of fire brigade, medical help and other assistance. Such people be nominated and they should guide relief.
F Everyone must know use of fire extinguisher in emergency.
F Security guards are trained to coordinate in such crises.
F Be concerned and develop habit of surveillance when out of our house. Check your seat in cinema hall, train, bus and air. Have you observed a bird, she jumped around and looks in all directions before selecting a spot on a tree for her security. Do we learn anything from this bird instinct?
F Look for the objects, baggage, at bus stand, railway stations, compartments, airport, which is unclaimed.
F Unknown vehicles parked at airports, Railway Stations and bus stands have to be kept under surveillance by common citizens, and this alertness may help authorities.
F Bus, trains and airlines passengers who notice any suspicious behavior of co-passengers, be brought to the notice of officials,
F Every passenger should identify a friend or relations residence in case of requirement of staying away in emergency. The family should know about such a plan.
F Do not touch any suspicious object. Report to concerned people.
F Do not crowd the object.
F Passengers should not accept parcels from unknown persons in hurry while boarding train or bus.
Dos and Donts
Chemical, Nuclear and Biological Warfare
Chemical Weapons :- Citizens can identify such attacks by observing people who start coughing, vomiting or seizing.
F Evacuate the area immediately and dial disaster management control room for help.
F If indoors, exit the building rapidly as possible.
F Once out side, if you believe that you may have been exposed to toxic substance, discard you inhibition to remove you clothes, remove your clothes immediately, which may save your life.
F Taking out your clothes can remove 80 percent of the contamination hazards.
F Look for a near by water tap or fountain, pool or other source of water so that you can quickly and thoroughly rinse any skin part that may have been exposed.
F Fire brigades on arrival in area may spray water on every one affected and decontaminate.
F Remain calm.
F Medical attention shall be needed and first aid to be given to seriously affected people.
F Evacuate most seriously exposed individuals.
F If you happen to be in open and out door, you may observe birds and small animals falling to the ground due to poisonous gas. You must immediately move indoors and create a physical barrier between you and toxic cloud. A building protection is preferred, however, getting in side your car will also help you.
F Shut all doors and windows of the house and put off fans and air conditioners.
F Try to plug flow of air or wind to you rooms.
F Stay indoors.
F Listens Radio, TV News and Announcements.
F Authority will notify you when it is safe to come out.
F Have a bath immediately on entry to the house and keep your cloth in a plastic bag, it will help remove any contamination that might have occurred before you were able to get indoors. It may be done in period of less than a minute or one minute.
F You may like to keep gas, mask handy.
Biological Weapons: Biological Weapons have been described as "the poor mans atom bomb". These viruses could be spread through water and food. Some of the suggested points for use of common people are.
F On hearing report of that, biological agents have been released, stay indoors.
F Shuts all windows and doors and turn off fans and air conditioners.
F A gas mask can provide an excellent respiratory protection.
F Put a physical barrier between you and agent dissemination.
F Reach for medical help.
F Boil your drinking water.
F Ascertain and check your vegetable and food items.
F To protect from heat and flash, any light material or foliage cover will give reasonable protection to human body.
F Gamma radiation protection requires a shallow or trench which is 4 to 5 feet deep people remaining at the bottom of such shelter will be safe.
F For blast and earth shock, strong shelters have to be planned in societies and have to be strong enough and these not to protrude above ground level.
F Being in shelter/trenches can prevent radioactive fallout. The requirement of protection is similar to hear and flash. A chemical protective mask may be useful.
The suggested DOs and DON'TS for prevention/Protection against NUCLEAR, BILOGICAL And CHEMICAL weapons as under
A. NUCLEAR WAR
Before the Attack:
- Construct /Identity basements in your residence where the whole family can stay in for a fortnight.
- In case no basement available, then in the open space in front of your house, construct bunkers as in conventional war (as some protection is better than no protection)
- Stock the shelter with non-perishable foods and water to be replaced regularly before getting unhygienic.
- Construct the toilet facilities in the basement/Shelter
- Store ample candles and battery lights.
- Remove stocks flammables, if any.
- Keep battery operated miniature transistor /TV sets in the basement
- Familiarize with instructions/operational procedures being broadcasted/telecasted at stipulated by CD authorities
- Paste black paper on window/door glass panels.
- Familiarize with community shelters in your locality in consultation with CD/Revenue/police authorities.
- In open, immediately drop to ground and remain in lying position.
- Protect eyes and exposed skin areas by covering eyes and face with hand
- Protect ears by fingers or thumbs after covering eyes with palms to prevent ear drum Rupture.
- Stay down after the initial shock wave. Wait for the winds to die down and debris to stop falling.
- If blast wave does not arrive within fire seconds of the flash, you were far enough from the ground Zero and initial, radiation exposure will not exceed 150 reds.
- Drive out of the way of any windows or doors to avoid injury due to glass/window Splinters.
- If in vehicle, on detection of flash, drive from the vehicle to a face down, in prone position. Drive in the direction of the flash to avoid the vehicle over turning on you due to blast.
- Stay down under cover until debris stop falling.
- Stay calm. Burn, injuries dazzle and concern over production exposure may combine to create panic.
- Blast wind will generally end in one to two minutes after burns, cuts band bruises are not different than conventional injuries. Dazzle is temporary and vision should return in few seconds.
- If survived the blast, the chances of being exposed to lethal dose of radiation is relatively small unless located in an early fall out area.
- Expect some initial dis-orientation as the blast wave may blow down and carry away many prominent and familiar features. Beware of weakened structures and trees from collapsing.
- Put out fires before they spread.
- Improve over cover. Cover the openings of shelters to prevent the entry of fall out particles.
- When coming from contaminated area, follow simple decontamination procedure like removal of clothing outdoors and having a bath before entering safe areas.
- Do not consume open food/drinks/water/beverages etc. lying under the open sky.
- Do not move out of shelters /basements unless instructed by authorities
- Don't stir up dust or brush against things main moving in fallout areas.
- Don't smoke, eat or drink in exposed area.
- Don't kneel, lie or sit on the ground
- Don't walk barefooted or in open slippers.
- Don't move out of your shelter without proper protection to breathing passages at least during the first 24 hours after the blast.
- Don't use flour from gunny bags, foods wrapped in paper, water from open pools/ lakes.
- Don't dust your ventilators indiscriminately.
- Don't permit contaminated persons in basements/shelters unless decontaminated.
B. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE:
- Follow permanent implementation of body hygiene measures such as trimming of fingernails regularly and washing hands with soap and water before eating or drinking.
- Follow active immunization as available.
- Wash all new vegetables in detergents before cooking or eating.
- Report any case of sickness in the family/ neighborhood to health authorities.
- Help authorities in destruction of infected stocks of food, crops, livestock etc.
- Keep your premises clean.
- Spray/use insecticides to keep vectors away.
- Store ample food and water under cover and replace the same regularly before getting spoiled.
- Use mosquito nets/ repellents at night.
- Don't allow waste particularly food waste material to accumulate in or around your premises.
- Do not allow open pools/collection of water in surrounding area.
- Don't panic and stay calm.
- Don't consume stale food material.
C. CHEMICAL WARFARE:
- Keep calm and do not panic.
- Listen to the radio and follow official instructions. Inform your neighbors especially the elderly and handicapped and assist them.
- Stay inside if at home or shelter in a building and close all doors and windows. Seal all exterior openings and turn off the ventilation, air conditioning and heating.
- Protect your mouth and nose, if in the open, with a wet cloth or a protective mask.
- Take shelter in the nearest building and remain inside until otherwise instructed by the authorities.
- Do not telephone as this overloads the system.
- Follow the orders of the Civil Defence, fire services, Police or other intervening services.
- Eat only food stored inside a building such as tinned food and preserved one. Drink only from bottles or cartons. Follow the instructions on the use of tap water.
- If you are in a car, turn off the ventilation and close the windows. Listen to the radio and take shelter in the nearest building. Follow the instructions of the authorities.
- Do not consume open food/drinks/water beverages etc. lying under the open sky.
- Do not move out of shelters/ basement unless instructed by authorities.
- Don't stir up dust or brush against things when moving in contaminated areas.
- Don't smoke, eat or drink in exposed areas.
- Don't kneel, lie or sit on the ground.
- Don't walk barefooted or in open slippers.
- Don't move out of your shelter without proper protection to breathing passages.
- Don't permit contaminated persons in basements/shelter unless decontaminated for the chemical vapors.
Warning of Air raid: - Warning of an imminent raid enables the public to be prepared for an air attack and to take air shelter. Aircraft will be spotted with the help of Radars in time when they are miles away from the target. The control centre will immediately pass on the warning to other concerned and siren will be sounded.
Dos for general public after siren will be sounded, before Air raid
a) Taking cover in the open
a) Taking cover in the open
I. On hearing the warning or the sound of enemy bombers, lie flat on the ground with your face downward, keep your chest slightly above the ground and rest on your elbows. Plug your ears with cotton wool and if this is not available, plug them with the corners of your dhoti, sari or turban etc. Place a rolled-up handkerchief or a corner of your dhoti etc. between your teeth to keep the mouth open and not to be affected by the earth shock which may cut you tongue.
II. The splinters and debris fly outward and upward and therefore lie flat on the ground. You are safer there.
b) When very near a building
I. Walls, archways, doorways are good protection. Go and stand near them. Do not lean directly against a wall.
c) Inside a building
I. It is better to be near an inside than an outside wall.
II. Avoid being in the direct line of a door or windows.
III. Remember the extreme danger of flying glass. The safest part of the house will be away from the windows, etc. and to be in the angle of a wall.
d) When in a train
I. Turn off the lights and crawl under the seats. Do not look out of the windows.
e) When in a tram or bus
I. Stop it. Leave it. Go out and act as if you were in the open.
f) When in your own motor car
I. Stop your car on the left hand, closest to the edge of the road.
II. Leave the car unlocked. Keep the switch key in its place so that if you are a casualty, the car can be driven by others.
III. Keep the window open.
IV. Get out of the car and act as if you were out in the open.
g) When at a cinema
I. Remain seated and keep calm. You are safer there than anywhere else.
h) When in a bullock cart or Tonga etc.
I. Unyoke the animals and tie them to the nearest tree or strong pole where they will not obstruct traffic. Go out and act as if in the open.
a) Taking cover in the open
I. On hearing the warning or the sound of enemy bombers do not run to cover if there is no time.
II. Never look up during an air raid.
AFTER AN AIR-RAID
Water: Use water in the cisterns and tank if your supply is cut off. Economise in the use of water, as it will be needed for fire fighting.
Electricity: If mains or meter boards are damaged, report it to the warden. If the electric installation in your house is damaged, send for an electrician.
Sewers: If the waste disposal system is damaged, use disinfectants freely and burn or bury your rubbish. If your house is slightly damaged, try to repair it. In case it is destroyed go to the house of a friend or to a relief centre. Ask the police or warden where these are.
Attend to the injured: In case of slight injury, go to the First Aid Post for treatment. In case of severe injury await the help of a First Aid party. Keep the patient warm, reassure him, enable him to breathe easily by removing any dust or grit from his nose and mouth. Control bleeding, relieve pain, support fractured limbs by improvised splints and give artificial respiration.
a) Look round the area for fires. With the help of sand, water and stirrup pumps tackle the fires in their initial stages. If it gets out of control, call your neighbor and inform the warden. If you are lucky, see if you can help others. While dealing with an incendiary bomb, protect your eyes and make sure not to direct a jet of water on the bomb.
b) If the room is on fire, close all doors and windows. It will help prevent spreading of fire. While entering it, crawl along the floor and keep as close to the floor as possible. Keep close to the wall.
c) If someone's clothes catch fire, wrap him up in a rug or blanket and roll him on the ground.
d) If you are caught within a house on fire, escape through the windows by using a rope or bed sheets after having tied one end to some strong point beside the house. Call for help from an opening if unable to escape through the window.
e) Do not go alone into a building on fire if you can do so in the company of another.
f) Exercise great care while removing debris from the neighborhood of a casualty. Do not pull timber out of the wreckage because you may cause further collapse. Do not crawl over the debris unless absolutely unavoidable. Do not touch loose electric wiring. Protect the casualty from falling debris by providing tarpaulin or other cover.
RESCUE IN AN AIR-RAID
a) Keep calm.
b) Make proper reconnaissance before starting rescue work.
c) Keep as near as possible to the wall when on damaged stairs.
d) Exercise great care while removing debris from the vicinity of the casualty.
e) Protect the casualty from falling debris and dust with the help of iron sheets, tarpaulins, etc.
f) Free the nose and mouth of the casualty from dust and grit to case his breathing.
g) Reassure the patient and get him taken home to bed, if the injury is not severe.
h) Loosen all clothing and keep the patient lying down and warm.
i) Give artificial respiration, if needed, control bleeding, if any, as far as possible, and relieve pain of the casualty by supporting fractures by improvised splints.
j) Contact immediately the nearest First Aid Post for proper medical attendance for the casualty.
a) Don't get panicky.
b) Don't pull timber out of the wreckage indiscriminately or you may cause further collapse.
c) Don't touch loose electric wiring.
d) Don't crawl over the debris or disturb part of the damaged structure unless you are compelled to do so by circumstances.
MUMBAI MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
MUMBAI MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
A Guide to Prepare Community For Surviving Earthquake In Urban Areas
Before the Earthquake
It is essential that we are prepared for a earthquake. Seismic experts do not rule out the possibility of an earthquake anywhere in
Maharashtra including Mumbai. We don't know when this will happen.
When an earthquake occurs, your first warning may be a shaking sensation if you are in a building. It may also be followed with a sudden noise or roar. You may find yourself completely topsy-turvy. It may be a scary situation! It may last a few seconds or go on for a few minutes. Breaking glass, and things falling around could hurt you. Be prepared for aftershocks.
We can't prevent an earthquake. But we can:
Ø Be prepared by injury.
Ø Be prepared to minimize damage to your home.
Ø Be prepared to manage our survival afterwards for at least 72 hours without help.
Your family preparedness for such a situation is a must. You must prepare and practice what to do during and after an earthquake.
Ø Plan your needs in such a situation. Rite down and exercise your safety plan.
Ø Known the safe and dangerous places in your home.
Safe: -Under heavy tables or desks, inside corridor, corners of rooms or archways.]
Dangerous: - Near window or mirrors, under any objects that can fall, the kitchen-where the stove, refrigerator or contents of cupboards may move violently, doorways, because the shaking may slam the door on you. Practice taking cover.
Ø Train members of your family to use fire extinguish.
Ø Plan and practice evacuation.
Ø Talk to your children about the earthquake: what to do if they are at home, at school, if the quake separates your family.
Ø Arrange an alternative family place if your present area is out of bound. Each family member should carry the contact phone number and address.
Ø Remind your family to relay on emergency authorities for guidance. Broadcast reports on radio and television will have instructions.
Ø Make sure each member of your family knows how to shut off the utilities-gas, electricity and water. (Don't shut off the gas unless there is a leak or a fire. If the gas is turned off, don't turn it on again-that must be done by a qualified technician.)
Ø Your plan should include a list of where emergency supplies and equipment are stored.
Ø Share your emergency plan with neighbors.
During the Earthquake
Preparations for an earthquake include knowing what to do while it is happening. By learning and practicing what you should try to do, you will be more able to remain calm enough to protect yourself and help others. Know what to do, wherever you are. In summary, you should take cover and stay there.
Ø If you're inside your home, stay there. Get out of the kitchen safer places are inside hall, in corners, in archways. Take cover under a heavy table, desk or any solid furniture that you can get under and hold onto. Protect your head and face. Doors may slam on you figures if you are in a doorway. Avoid areas near windows.
Ø If you are in a yard outside your home, stay there and get clear of buildings and wires that could fall on you.
Ø Don't go outside where you may be hit by falling debris - pavements next to tall buildings are particularly dangerous.
Ø Avoid lifts - if you are in a lift when an earthquake happens, press all floors buttons and get out when you can. High - rise residents will hear fire alarms go off and electricity may fail.
Ø If you are in a vehicle, pull over to the sight (leave the road clear) away from bridges, over bridges and buildings. Stay in your vehicle.
Ø If you are in a crowed public place, take cover and watch that you don't get trampled. In shopping centers, take cover in the nearest store and keep away form windows, neon signs and display shelves of heavy objects.
Ø Remain in protected place until the shacking stops. Anticipate after shocks - they may occur after the first quake.
Ø Try to remain calm and help others.
After the earthquake
Preparation of an earthquake also include knowing what to do and not do, after the shaking stops-when there is a danger from aftershocks, fire, falling building materials, debris, etc. Remain calm. You may have to take charge of others. Take care of life threatening situations first. Remember, you may be on your own for 72 hours or more.
Ø Check your home for structural damage and other hazards.
Ø Check yourself and others nearby for injuries-administer first aid quickly and carefully.
Ø If you are evacuating, locate and take your pack of emergency supplies with you.
Ø Use a torch to check utilities and not shut them off unless damaged. Leaking gas will smell. Don't light matches or turn on light switches-until you are sure there are no gas leaks or flammable liquids.
Ø Wear sturdy shoes, if there's debris, particularly broken glass.
Ø Check your neighbor's after looking your own family. Your first help after and earthquake usually will come from family and friends.
Ø Confine frightened pets.
Ø Don't flush toilets if you suspects nearby sewer lines are broken.
Ø Carefully cleanup any spilled hazardous material.
Ø Secure your home against intruders.
Ø Turn on your battery-power radio (or car radio) and listen for broadcast emergency instructions.
Ø Don't use your telephone, expect it an extreme emergency.
Ø Don't use your vehicle, expect in an extreme emergency.
Ø Stay at least ten meters from downed power lines.